Online Coding Bootcamps

Online coding bootcamps offer a great opportunity to learn to code at home. Traditional coding boot camps typical involved brick-and-mortar classrooms and workshops. However, online programs allow you to practice and schedule times that are most convenient for you. Many of these programs are also free, allowing you to delve into coding at your own pace without committing thousands of dollars into tutoring. If you have always wanted to learn coding, the online programs can provide the essential tools needed to train at home. 

General Online Coding Courses  
1.  Code Academy  
Many people consider Code Academy the authoritative source for learning how to code for free. The school reports that over 24 million people have already learned coding basics through its interactive program. You can use Code Academy as a broad introduction to the most well-known coding topics (including HTML, JAVA, PHP, Python, and Ruby on Rails). One of the program’s best features is the opportunity learn by doing – simply type your practice code into the browser and see results instantly on the page. 

2.  Coursera  
Coursera is a major online learning library that offers over 1,000 courses from over 120 universities (on a variety of subjects). With Coursera, you can sign up for a free coding class and receive instruction from a real professor at a distinguished college or university. Some of the free Coursera subjects include Introduction to Programming, C programming language, and IoT programming. All courses are free, but you can also pay for a “Verified Certificate” to add to your resume or LinkedIn profile. 

3.  CodeWars  
CodeWars is an immersive, free online program that delivers intense training in the programming language of your choice. Modelled after a traditional Japanese  dojo  (formal training facility), this program features a series of games and challenges that become progressively harder the more you practice. The program organizes its challenges into  kata  (the Japanese word for practice through repetition) and lets you earn badges of honor as you complete each level. Use CodeWars to learn Haskell, Clojure, JavaScript, Python, Ruby, and SQL

4.  Free Code Camp  
Feel like a kid at summer camp in the privacy of your home with Free Code Camp. This professional course offers over 800 hours of free coding instruction. Once you have mastered the basics, the camp provides hands-on, real-world experience by allowing you to write code for nonprofit organizations. Earn certifications in HTML, CSS, JavaScript, or data visualization while making a difference in the lives of others with this free coding boot camp. 

5.  Intensive Introduction to Computer Science  
This intensive learning program offers crash-course training in C+, PHP, and JavaScript. Taught in a classical academic style, you can use these free video lectures to understand the basics of algorithms, software, hardware, and programming languages. The program also devotes special attention to coding in the real world (such as social media networks, homeland security, forensics, and cryptography). For those who feel most comfortable in a classroom or academic setting, this free resource is worth exploring. 

6.  General Assembly Dash Program  
If you prefer hands-on projects over classroom learning, the GA Dash program is ideal for you. From start to finish, this boot camp requires you to build a project as you follow step-by-step guidelines. This apprenticeship-style camp helps you learn practical skills that you can apply immediately to your personal or professional life. For example, one GA Dash tutorial features instructions on how to create and publish a Tumblr theme from scratch. 

7.  edX  
This online education center is a collaborative learning program that delivers free courses from the world’s most distinguished universities. With edX, you can take free computer science classes from UC Berkley, Harvard, MIT, and the University of Texas System (among others). With over 100 full-length courses in computer science, edX is a great resource for getting a solid foundation in the primary programming languages. 

8.  aGupieWare  
This program offers free, undergraduate-level training in computer science and coding. Structured as a rigorous boot camp, the program features three introductory courses, seven core subjects, and five elective options. This 15-course curriculum provides a well-rounded foundation in coding. By participating in this platform, you can immerse yourself in training specialties like swift programming, hacking, security testing, and Linux. Due to the supervision of professors from Carnegie Mellon, Stanford, and Columbia, this program has some of the best quality-control standards available online. 

9.  GitHub’s Free EBook Foundation  
GitHub is a web hosting and source code management (SCM) company. While most people associate GitHub with its premium hosting service, the company’s non-profit foundation offers one of the best free programming libraries online. With this resource, you can view or download eBooks on virtually any coding subject on your own time. 

10.  MIT OpenCourseWare (OCW)  
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) permits open access to its library of programming courses. Using this OpenCourseWare directory, you can view undergraduate and graduate coding classes at one of the most prestigious schools in the world without having to pay tuition. The library’s introductory-level courses include JavaScript, Python, and MATLAB. 

11.  HackPledge.org  
Hack Pledge is an alliance of experienced developers dedicated to mentoring the next generation of coders. To participate in the boot camp, you must first sign an online “pledge” agreeing to commit to learning the art of software development. After signing the pledge, you can receive access to programming lessons. Notably, this boot camp features exclusive lessons from Bram Cohen (founder of the file-sharing company BitTorrent). 

12.  Code Avengers  
If you are interested in an interactive or gamified approach to learning, Code Avengers fits the bill. This program offers a collection of 12-hour courses in coding mobile apps, HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. While many university programs assume some programming knowledge, Code Avengers offers a wide selection of classes for total beginners. In addition to offering courses for native English speakers, the program is also available in a variety of European languages (including Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, and Russian). 

13.  HTML5 Rocks (Web Fundamentals)  
This program allows you to learn the hidden secrets of building modern websites and their mobile counterparts. As the brainchild of real Google developers, this camp gives you first-hand knowledge on how to create top-ranked mobile sites. Successful participants have gone on to become entrepreneurs and coding instructors. Because this program starts at the intermediate to advanced level, you may wish to take an introductory course on HTML5 first (in order to get the most out of this coding program). 

14.  Udemy  
Udemy is an online catalogue of both free and paid courses. Since the courses feature teachers from a variety of backgrounds, you should also check class reviews to ensure the best fit. Some of the most popular coding courses on this directory include mobile development, game development, and eCommerce site creation (also known as Programming for Entrepreneurs). 

15.  The Odin Project  
The Odin Project is an open-source program designed to help individuals jump-start their careers in coding. As a product of the Viking Code School, this platform offers the same rigorous, introductory boot camp in the form of a free curriculum. The project provides a solid foundation in the basic programming languages, including HTML, CSS, Git, JavaScript, and Ruby. In addition, the program includes workshops on how to get hired with your newfound and marketable skills. 

16.  Udacity  
Udacity offers free coding courses at all skill levels. In addition to its free library, the program allows you to earn “nanodegrees” entirely online. 

17.  HackerRank  
HackerRank is a community of over one million programmers who solve coding challenges to strengthen their developer skills. Users compete with each other to earn points and to secure a top spot on the HackerRank leader board. Ideal for intermediate-level programmers, this resource is a great way to drill existing skills while enrolled in an academic program. 

18.  BitDegree  
BitDegree offers interactive, gamified coding courses. If you enjoy “learning by doing,” these gamified courses can help you quickly absorb the basics of JQuery, HTML, SQL, PHP, and JavaScript. Remaining true to its name, BitDegree also offers real-world benefits. The program has partnered with businesses that recruit tech talent directly from the website. Along with strengthening your resume, the opportunity for future employment makes BitDegree worth giving a try. 

19.  UpSkill Courses  
UpSkill courses consist of progressive projects that gradually take you from the beginner to advanced level in coding. This free boot camp features portfolio projects that focus mainly on web development. As a result, the most popular free courses include WordPress plugin development, MySql, Bootstrap, and HTML5. If you have zero coding experience, UpSkill is an excellent place to receive practical training with just the right pacing. 

20.  Code.org  
Code.org features how-to tutorials that take just one hour each day. The goals of the boot camp are to make coding a standard part of any education (on par with reading and arithmetic), to simplify teaching methods so that students remain with the program, and to increase coding literacy among female and minority students. Over 25 percent of U.S. students have created an account on the site, enabling access to the hour-long tutorials or group lab projects. 

21.  Code Conquest  
If you feel entirely clueless coding and programming, Code Conquest may help alleviate your fears. This boot camp starts at the absolute beginner level by answering the question, “What is coding?” By explaining the basics in the simplest way possible, this website can help you make an informed decision on which programming language to learn and how to use it in your everyday life. 

22.  A List Apart  
A List Apart is an interactive, online magazine that contains free e-books, website design instructions, and coding tutorials. You can also read contributing articles from veteran web developers, and the site creators host in-person meetups in various U.S. cities. 

23.  Codeasy.net  
Codeasy is a complete immersion boot camp in which you learn coding by working your way through an adventure story. First, register for the site at the beginner or intermediate level. Once you register, the site introduces a futuristic adventure game in which you have to use programming skills to fight machines and get to the next level. The adventure story starts with the modern programming language C# and then gradually progresses to more advanced coding. 

24.  Hack Design  
Hack Design offers a free catalogue of books, games, video tutorials on coding. With this course, simply sign up to receive a free coding lesson each week. Experts curate web-based resources and then allow you to learn at your own pace using the weekly content. 

25.  CodeSignal  
CodeSignal helps you sharpen your coding skills by competing with other participants for potential programming jobs. Formerly known as CodeFights.com, this site lets you solve coding problems in real-time to impress recruiters. The program follows a gamified structure to prevent monotony and boredom. In addition to the chance at employment, the best coders can go on to participate in tournaments. 

26.  SoloLearn  
As the name implies, SoloLearn allows you to learn coding on your own time using a free download or your mobile device. But the boot camp takes individual learning to the next level by hosting a social network of other independent, motivated learners. This platform features quizzes and discussion boards to keep you on track. 

27.  The Code Player  
For those who enjoy classic games and interactive walk-throughs, The Code Player is a solid choice. This program uses video tutorials to teach the most common programming languages from start to finish. 

28.  Bento.io  
Learn to code for free and become a self-taught developer using your Facebook or Google account. This database includes over 100 developer topics, and the Google aggregate keeps you posted on which programming languages are the most trending. 

29.  Scotch.io  
This broad-themed coding platform lets you learn web development and programming using tutorials, videos, and mini-courses. You can also use this free resource to learn structure and workflow necessary to start your own coding business. 

30.  Hackr.io  
This free database is one of the largest programmer-curated resources on the web. You can use this website without registration. Simply enter your desired topic into the search box and find tutorials, e-books, and classes listed in order of expert recommendation. 

31.  W3Schools  
W3schools.com is one of the oldest continuously operating platforms for learning to code, and it is also the world’s largest. This platform offers thorough tutorials on HTML, CSS, JavaScript, servers, website creation, and XML. In addition to the tutorials, the references and numerous real-world examples makes this platform one of the most frequented tools on the web. 

32.  Coderbyte  
Coderbyte allows you to learn coding and algorithms entirely by practice. With its database of over 200 coding problems and solutions, Coderbyte is a valuable resource for the intermediate coder. You can also use the site to practice for programmer job interviews and to attract the attention of hiring organizations. 

33.  Microsoft Virtual Academy  
Master your developer skills through Microsoft’s curated course library. This academy features course pathways for some of the most exciting skills in programming, including game development, visual studios, and cloud development. The academy also has a special training section exclusively for beginners. 

34.  Edabit  
If you like the idea of using Duolingo or Rosetta Stone to learn foreign languages, you will more than likely enjoy using Edabit to learn to code. Edabit features miniature, interactive coding lessons that simulate how you might use coding in real scenarios. Use this resource to practice JavaScript, PHP, Python, or Swift. 

35.  Launch School Open Book Shelf  
This open library of free programming textbooks is a great way to supplement any coding boot camp. Use these free books to learn the basics of the most important languages, including the Command Line, GitHub, SQL, and Ruby on Rials. Each book is simple enough for beginners, and you can access the full library without downloading or registration. 


YouTube Coding Resources  
36.  LearnCode.academy  
LearnCode.academy features organic videos from IT educator Will Stern. The channel features free, intensive tutorials on coding languages like JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. There are also design tutorials for crafting your own website as well as career advice on how to become a professional developer. With well over 30 million views, this channel is a popular source for coding playlists and guidance. 

37.  The New Boston  
This channel is famous for uploading daily videos on the most cutting-edge coding topics. You can use this channel to learn video game development, programming languages, website design, and network design. With over two million subscribers and nearly half-billion video views, this channel is also a good way to network with like-minded programmers. 

38.  Derek Banas  
Derek Banas is an IT consultant who offers a personalized approach to learning to code on YouTube. Not only does he create coding tutorials upon requests, but he hosts live streaming sessions to help you fine-tune your programming skills. Visit this channel for a free introduction to programming Android, Python, JavaScript, HTML, and others. 

39.  ProgrammingKnowledge  
ProgrammingKnowledge is an excellent way for beginners to start learning coding. The channel’s playlists provide step-by-step guidance without requiring any background in programming or software. Working your way through these free playlists is a great way to get a solid foundation before moving on to more advanced study. 

40.  Treehouse  
As the official YouTube channel of the Treehouse coding school, this channel provides a simplified introduction to most programming languages. Most notably, Treehouse features dozens of “Live Coding” tutorials that are nearly two hours in length each. Although most of the live sessions occurred in 2017, you can still access each of these valuable tutorials indefinitely on YouTube. 

41.  Kudvenkat  
Venkat Kud is a software engineer who offers detailed tutorials Microsoft.NET technologies in both English and Arabic. You can also use this channel as a resource for learning to code C# and SQL servers. 

42.  CSS-Tricks  
Chris Coyier is a web developer who uses CSS-Tricks to teach HTML, PHP, and SaaS with easy-to-understand videos. If you are looking for playlists that explain coding in layman’s terms, this channel is an excellent choice for you. 

43.  Mike Locke  
Mike Locke is a senior UI/UX designer with over 20 years of experience in the field. You can use this channel for personable tutorials on XHTML, CSS, and UI visual design. In addition, the channel provides insight on complementary skills (such as Adobe Illustrator) and well as career advice on how to become a UX designer. 

44.  Adam Khoury  
Adam Khoury is a professional coder who teaches multimedia flash topics such as JavaScript, PHP, and SQL. In addition to coding tutorials, his channel also offers quizzes and open discussions. 

45.  DevTips  
DevTips is one of the most popular YouTube channels for intermediate and advanced-level coders. As the brainchild of Google employee Travis Neilson, this channel features over 200 videos on advanced CSS and HTML. The channel also includes guest interviews and links to additional resources. 


Blogs for Learning Coding  
46.  David Walsh  
As a senior developer at Mozilla Firefox, David Walsh uses his extensive programming knowledge to provide up-to-date tutorials. You can use this blog as a well-rounded approach to learn JavaScript, API applications, Node.js, and other coding skills. 

47.  Softwarehow  
This highly rated blog contains how-to tutorials, reviews, and free downloadable tools to help you learn to code quickly. 

48.  SitePoint  
SitePoint features free learning hubs that teach you the basis of coding. Each hub uses a “learning path” that progresses from beginner to intermediate and advanced. Popular coding topics include blockchain, user experience (UX), HTML and CSS, and JavaScript. While the free resources are more than enough for an extensive boot camp, the blog also includes an exclusive discount if you decide to use the premium website. 

49.  Tuts+  
This blog features thousands of free tutorials, articles and videos. Although the free how-to tutorials keep most coders occupied for weeks, Tuts+ also offers a premium monthly subscription for enrollment in online courses. 

50.  CSS-Tricks  
The CSS-Tricks blog is a companion to the popular YouTube channel. Among the most important features of this blog is the free CSS  almanac  that offers a straightforward dictionary reference for coders. Beginners can also use the  CSS snippet  tool that allows you to practice simple coding exercises directly on the website screen. 

Online Coding Bootcamps – Programming Specialties  

The Command Line  
51.  Learn Enough Command Line to Be Dangerous  
In this free tutorial, IT educator Michael Hartl takes you step-by-step through the nuts and bolts of the Unix command line. This tutorial assumes no prior knowledge and includes helpful tips and diagrams. As a graduate of the California Institute of Technology, Hartl also provides exercises and problem set solutions found in the curricula of the nation’s leading computer science programs. 

52.  Command Line Power User  
This free boot camp is an intensive video course for intermediate and advanced-level courses. If you already have a foundation in the Unix command line and want to learn more tools of the trade, this is the course for you. 

53.  Conquering the Command Line  
This free, full-length textbook by Mark Bates is the ultimate guide to the Unix command line. Keep this reference handy for an in-depth look on how to become a competent developer. 

54.  Viking Code School Command Line Crash Course  
This self-guided course is an excellent way to complete a Unix command line boot camp online. In addition to the basic training course, you can sign up for free prep work in other coding languages. 

55.  Learn the Bash Command Line (Ryan’s Tutorials)  
Ryan’s Tutorials provide extensive Unix training within the format of a personal tutoring website. 

Git and GitHub  
56.  Git Immersion  
Git Immersion is a complete tour that guides you through the key aspects of this coding control system. Register for the tour, set up notification preferences, and immediately begin working on projects to learn how to code. 

57.  Try Git  
Try Git is a sweeping library of resources with something for everyone. Whether you are an audio learner, visual learner, or hands-on leaner, this site has a wealth of resources to keep you on the right track. If you excel at learning through reading or study, this site includes a complete handbook as well as quick-reference cheat sheets. Those who prefer learning by doing can download commands and start practicing. The site also includes a learning lab and professional training. 

58.  Atlassian Git Tutorial  
This open guide to Git is an excellent resource for beginners. 

59.  GIT-SCM  
The curated resource from software engineers Scott Chacon and Ben Straub includes free books, videos, and downloads on how to use Git controls. 

HTML and CSS  
60.  HTML5 Dog  
Many people start learning to code with HTML (as it is one of the most recognizable languages). HTMLDog offers tutorials, essential techniques, problem-set examples, and free references. You can  choose  from among beginner, intermediate, or advanced courses to get started. 

61.  Learn-HTML.org  
This free, interactive website includes an output window that helps you learn coding every step of the way. 

62.  Marksheet.io  
MarkSheet is an open e-book that includes downloads and examples on each of the following four units: HTML on the internet, HTML5, CSS3, and Sass. 

63.  Mozilla Developer Network  
This curated resource from Mozilla Firefox provides quick access to some of the best tutorials and references on writing HTML. Any intermediate or advanced web developer should explore this search tool to hone the craft. 

64.  ShayHowe  
ShayHow features rigorous, step-by-step tutorials on how to build complete websites. If you want to go beyond using someone else’s template and learn how your website truly works from the back-end, this is the resource for you. Learn everything from building your first web page to adding images and media and creating a responsive design. 

65.  ILoveCoding.org  
Modeled after a traditional boot camp, this free resource challenges you to learn HTML and CSS in 14 days. With its full beginner curriculum, the course promises to give you the tools to create a great-looking personal or business website from scratch. 

JavaScript  
66.  JavaScript.com  
If you know nothing about JavaScript, this interactive tool lets you practice simple script to get started. The site also includes  further reading  once you are ready for more advanced study. 

67.  Watch and Code  
As the name suggests, Watch and Code is a straightforward way to learn JavaScript by watching the experts and following suit. These practical video tutorials guide you from beginner to expert level, and the course includes weekly live study sessions to keep you motivated. 

68.  JavaScript for Cats  
JavaScript for Cats is a full-length e-book that you can read online without downloading. Written for new coders, it features manageable sections that are easy for a beginner to understand. 

69.  Eloquent Javascript  
This full-length reference book is the ultimate guide to JavaScript programming. Sponsored by the Mozilla Foundation and Hack Reactor (the most reputable coding school and boot camp), this textbook is a must-have companion for anyone learning to code this language. 

70.  NodeSchool  
NodeSchool offers free, open-source tutorials that you can learn on your own time. If you prefer in-person workshops, the site includes a directory of free lessons hosted around the world. 

71.  Learn JavaScript  
This interactive website lets you type and practice code on the same page of any lesson. 

WordPress  
72.  WordPress.tv  
This video library is the perfect resource for people unable to attend coding workshops in person. It is an archive of WordCamp (WordPress boot camp) lectures recorded from around the world. 

73.  WPBeginner  
This website is the ultimate guide to WordPress for beginners. It includes an essential  glossary  for novices as well as video tutorials and how-to guides with examples. 

74.  Learn.WordPress.com  
The official companion to WordPress.org is an underrated resource for coding training. It features step-by-step tutorials as well as the newfound  Blogging University  that teaches you to develop and customize a personal site. 

75.  WordPress Codex  
WordPress Codex is a full-length manual on how to get started with this content management system (CMS). From concept (“What is blogging?”) to execution (how to troubleshoot PHP, MySQL, and plugins), this is an invaluable resource for anyone serious about building a WordPress site. 

Python  
76.  LearnPython.org  
LearnPython.org is a free, interactive tutorial from the makers of DataCamp. Use this fun tool to write code on the screen as you work your way through beginner lessons. 

77.  Google’s Python Class  
Google’s Python Class is a free boot camp for individuals with existing programming knowledge who want to branch out into Python. If you are an intermediate or advanced learning who wishes to add Python to your resume, this is your opportunity to get started with the leaders of the field. The course includes free downloads and guidance from several Stanford computer science professors. 

78.  A Byte of Python  
This free, online e-book is perfect for absolute beginners. You can read it entirely in your browser or download the PDF for future reference. 

79.  Learn Python the Hard Way Online Course  
This web course is the online companion to Zed Shaw’s classic text on Python development. While the original textbook costs money, you can complete the entire online course for free. The site includes numerous exercises as well as links to additional resources. 

Ruby on Rails  
80.  Learn Ruby the Hard Way  
Like the online course on Python, this free Zed Shaw e-book is the online companion to his textbook on Ruby on Rails. This online course teaches the core fundamentals of Ruby and includes exercises to provide you with a strong foundation. 

81.  RubyMonk  
Ruby Monk feature free, interactive tutorials from C42 Engineering, a boutique software firm. With beginner to advanced boot camp options, this site lets you test and run code directly on the screen. 

82.  Ruby In 20 Minutes  
This detailed guide from the official Ruby website is a great way for beginners to practice every day. It provides all fundamental definitions written in manageable sections that you can read in 20 minutes or less. 

83.  Learn Ruby Online  
Learn Ruby Online is a interactive website that lets you run code directly on the page as you complete each lesson. 

84.  Rails Tutorial  
Like his book on the Command Line, Michael Hartl’s free Ruby on Rails Tutorial is a complete online textbook with diagrams and exercises. Each chapter of the e-book also includes links to numerous helpful resources. 

85.  Rails for Zombies  
This 10-day boot camp allows you to practice Ruby directly in your browser without any setup or configuration. Due to its endorsement from the official Ruby website, it is one of the most popular ways to learn web-application framework quickly. 


Data Science and Data Analysis  
86.  DataQuest  
This hands-on resource provides free courses that help train you to become a data analyst, data scientist, or data engineer. With mentoring from real-world professionals, this site allows you to construct projects within your own browser for review. 

87.  EliteDataScience  
This straightforward resource has an index of complete guides, worksheets, cheat sheets, and other tools to learn data analytics directly online. 

88.  Springboard  
Springboard offers beginners a free introduction to data analysis and machine learning with no prior knowledge necessary. After logging in with a Google account, you have access to free lectures, homework assignments and solutions, and group projects. 

89.  DataCamp  
If you are already in the process of learning data analytics, DataCamp has a free online editor that lets you code in Python and R. 

Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI)  

90.  Machine Learning Mastery  
This site is the premier way to discover machine learning entirely from scratch. As the brainchild of Dr. Jason Brownlee, this site features a  free crash course  as well as other online programming tools. 

91.  Learn With Google AI  
As part of Google’s initiative to increase awareness about artificial intelligence, this resource features everything from free tutorials for beginners to continuing-education courses for veteran professionals. 

92.  MIT Deep Learning  
MIT teaches this free online course on machine learning by using the real-world application of self-driving cars. 


Cybersecurity  
93.  U.S. Department of Homeland Security Free Online Learning Portal  
The Department of Homeland security offers an entire database of free online courses to train aspiring cybersecurity professionals. If you are willing to make the trip, you can sign up for in-person events in Idaho Falls, Idaho. 

94.  Sans Cyber Aces Online  
Sans Cyber Aces offers free, comprehensive courses on information security. This open courseware is one of the most recommended resources to prepare for professional SANS (SysAdmin, Audit, Network and Security) certifications. 

95.  Open Security Training  
This free resource offers intermediate and advanced training on forensics, cellular security, and processor vulnerability in national systems. 

96.  Future Learn: Introduction to Cyber Security  
This free course helps you understand the basics of cybersecurity to protect yourself personally and professionally. The course has multiple accreditation from the GCHQ (Government Communications Headquarters) and IISP (Institute of Information Security Professionals) to ensure that you receive the best education possible. 

97.  Heimdal Security’s Cyber Security Course for Beginners  
This five-week course offers free training on cybersecurity basics, threat protection, and cyber-attack prevention. 

98.  Cybrary  
This crowd-sourced library of cybersecurity tutorials lets you choose from a host of internet technology topics. Whether you are interested in forensics, malware, cryptography, or IT intelligence, Cybrary’s catalogue of courses can help you hone your skills. You can also filter search results to find courses ranging from the beginner to professional level. 

99.  O’Reilly Free Security Ebooks  
Rather than spending hundreds on security textbooks, get foundational knowledge with this collection of free, full-length security books. Whether you want to discover more about docker security, the dark web, or the increasing endangerment of personal privacy, this library of free books is a valuable resource for any learner. 


Mobile App Development  
100.  Google Developers Training  
Google offers this self-paced course for new coders to learn how to build apps on Android systems. If you are an experienced coder, you can also sign up to earn a “nanodegree” and create a portfolio of apps to sell on Google Play. 

101.  Mobile Developer’s Guide to The Galaxy  
In this free e-book download, over 20 veteran mobile app developers share tips on how to build your app from prototype to finish. For further reading, you can find related texts on the  Free Tech Books  website. 

102.  Android Developers  
The official Android developer site offers a straightforward guide on how to create your first mobile application. Choose from among coding lab tutorials and full-length training courses. 

103.  Start Developing iOS Apps  
This official Apple documentation archive contains a wealth of resources on how to build a mobile app that works on iPhones, iPads, and other iOS devices. 

104.  Swift Playgrounds  
This free iTunes app lets you build and run code in 3D prior to launching your finished app in the iTunes stone. 

105.  Alison App Development  
Alison.com is a massive curation of professional development courses. This resource is a great way to take free mobile development classes on both Android and Apple. 

UI/UX Design  
106.  UX Beginner  
This free resource offers inspiration for those considering the transition into a UI/UX design career. The site includes a glossary of terms, a free weekly subscription, and a reference list for more in-depth study. 

107.  The Gymnasium  
The Gymnasium offers free online courses for time-strapped professionals exploring an alternative in UI/UX design. This is a great way to acquire in-demand skills without quitting your day job. 

108.  MockPlus Tutorial  
MockPlus Tutorials allow you to learn UI/UX design through trial and error. Since a UI/UX design career is a unique hybrid of technology and art, this opportunity to practice before starting an official project is a valuable tool for any beginner. 

109.  UXPin  
This online studio offers free e-books on how to build prototypes, conduct wireframing and usability testing, draw mockups, and other essential skills for a UX design career. 

110.  The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction  
This free volume is the definitive guide to user experience and user interface design. Within its 52 chapters, you can discover how UI/UX applies to everything from social networks to personal care goods.

How to Become a Software Engineer

With the internet growing all the time Software Engineers are going to be in high demand for quite some time. Job openings for Software Engineers will continue to grow. That will open up many jobs in the industry. On top of the growing job market, the salary of a Software Engineer is good. The  Indeed Career Guide  states that the salary ranges anywhere from $65,550 to $149,055 per year. Additionally, according to the  Bureau of Labor Statistics  the 2017 median pay was $103,560, and there is an expected 24% increase in jobs between now and 2026. It isn’t too late for you to decide on a career in Software Engineering. 

In order to get a job as a Software Engineer, you may need to go to college and obtain a Bachelor’s Degree in Computer Science or a related field. This is not always necessary, however. You can get a job as a Software Engineer with only a killer portfolio and a decent amount of experience. The experience can be for non-profit companies or even from software that you developed on your own. 

What is a Software Engineer?  

Software Engineers develop new applications based on the needs and wants of the users. Software Engineers are also responsible for analyzing software in order to update it to meet current demands. With current electronic devices having similar hardware, Software Engineers have to design software that will be different from other engineers so that it will stand out. Those in this career field don’t focus on simple programs, instead, they typically focus on the bigger systems that are used by businesses. 

As a Software Engineer, you would have to focus on the minor details of software coding. The simplest issue could cause the software to run improperly so attention to detail is a must. You also have to be willing to sit for long periods of time working on the same project. If you are interested in becoming a Software Engineer you may be stumped on how to get started, so here are some steps for you to follow. 

How to Become a Software Engineer  

Determine Your Goals  

This is the first step on your journey to becoming a Software Engineer. Before anything else, you must decide what your end goals are. You need to figure out the exact job you want to apply for in the end. Who you want to work for is also a huge consideration. Research the jobs or companies you are interested in and see what they require of a Software Engineer. 

Another part of determining your goals is deciding how you are going to learn to do the job. Are you going to enroll in a college program or are you going to teach yourself? Your goals are going to determine the learning path you take, and your learning path could play a role in the job you end up with. 

Choose Which Language You Want to Learn  

This doesn’t mean you are going to learn a foreign language, it just means you are going to learn a certain computer programming language. These languages are what gives a computer instructions and makes electronics respond quickly to commands and given information. There are many different computer programming languages but some are used more often than others. You can’t learn them all at the same time so you have to choose one to begin with. After you learn one computer programming language there will likely be others that are similar or have certain things in common with the one you are already familiar with. 

There are guides online that will help you choose which language to begin with. The guides were put together by Software Engineers. One of the guides is posted on computerscience.org and it details each of 12 common computer programming languages. The guide is titled  Guide to Programming Languages , and it will tell you everything you need to know. Another great article that explains how to choose a computer programming language is titled  How to Learn a Programming Language . The author of the article explains what each language is best for such as computer programming or web design. As long as you do your research and choose a language that is common and works for you, you will be all set. 

Learn the Fundamentals  

As you’ve read before, you can enroll in college courses and work your way toward a degree, or you can teach yourself. The way you can teach yourself is through online bootcamps and websites, but it is best to begin with the computer programming language that you chose in the step above. You will need to  learn the core concepts of the language  before you can move further in the learning process. The core concepts are the same throughout many of the languages, so learning them makes it easy to learn the other languages later on. 

Once you have learned the core concept, you can then learn through examples online. The secret to learning through online examples is to deconstruct them and see how each component of the code works. Once you have a general idea you should make some changes to the code and see what works and what doesn’t. This gives you a chance to fix the code if the changes don’t work, which is also an important step to learning. 

Another great learning tool is a free course created by developers at Harvard called  CS50X . This program teaches how software programming languages and algorithms work. You will also create a programming project at the end of the course and present it to the other students. After the completion of the course, you can receive an optional certification for $90. If you choose to get the certification you can include that in your portfolio. 

Practice What You Have Learned  

After learning the fundamentals of being a Software Engineer, practicing is essential to meeting your goals. The best and only way to learn is by actually doing some coding. It takes many hours to become good at it. One program that you can use to practice is an  online Software Engineering program  developed by Flatiron School. This course offers more than 700 hours of practice and can be completed in the time frame you decide on. If you have quite a bit of time to dedicate to the program you can get it done quickly, but if you don’t have as much time you can do it at a slower pace. 

There are many free online coding programs that offer software engineering practice.  HackerRank  is one of these programs and you can work on hundreds of coding problems. You will know instantly if your answers are correct, so you can figure out the problem and fix it while your mind is still focused on it. You can choose which language to use on HackerRank, too, so you can use this program to practice no matter which language you chose to learn first. HackerRank starts easy and then gets harder as you solve the problems. Lessons are also built into the program in case you are struggling, and the lessons teach you how to do that particular problem. 

Another free program to practice with is  FreeCodeCamp . With FreeCodeCamp you can learn more about coding, but the focus is on web development. You set your own pace with this program, so there is no pressure to get it done during a certain time frame. When you are comfortable with your coding abilities you can work on projects for non-profit organizations through FreeCodeCamp. These projects will be great experiences for you and can make it easier for you to get a job as a Software Engineer later on. 

Build a Network  

One of the most important steps to becoming a Software Engineer is to build a network of other Software Engineers. Your network can include those who are professionals and even those who are just starting out. Networking with other people who are at the same level you are at can be just as beneficial as networking with professionals. Those at the same level are working through the same types of problems you are and can offer their input. 

Building a network also offers you a group of people who support you and can help you when you can’t figure something out. They can build you up when you lose motivation or can give you input on one of your ideas. Making these personal connections and developing relationships can even help you get a job, so it is important to keep things friendly and professional. 

There are different options for building a network. You can try and find an in-person group in your area, but they are sometimes farther away. Another option is to join an online community of Software Engineers. The online communities are sometimes easier because you don’t have to work it into your schedule, and you don’t have to travel. You can also network with people from all over the country if you network online. The creator of the blog  Learn to Code With Me  helped created a program called  Learn-Verified , and signing up gives you access to a networking group of other people who are just learning how to code. Within this group, you can work on problems with others through a video chat. 

Ask For Help  

Once you have developed a trusted network of Social Engineers you have the perfect group of people to ask for help. You can reach out to individuals or you can post the question in a group or a forum. Even professionals have to ask for help sometimes, so don’t feel bad if you have to do so. If you are using groups and forums to ask for help you should be willing to return the favor, however. If you see that someone asked a question that you know the answer to, make sure you are offering your advice. Doing so will make others more likely to respond to your questions, and it can potentially grow your network even further. 

Use Development Tools  

It only makes sense to use the development tools that the professionals use. If you choose to use other tools, you may be wasting your time if you plan on becoming a professional Software Engineer yourself. Using the tools that the professionals use allows you to learn how those tools work right from the start. You need to use tools that you will use in the real world, and avoid using tools that are just for fun. 

There are many tools you can use, so it is important to do your research and determine which ones are the best. The tools you need may depend on the type of software you want to develop or edit. It may also depend on how quickly you need the program to work and if plugins are necessary. Some of the best development tools are explained in an article titled  25 Tools Every Software Developer Should Master . The author of this article goes into detail about each tool and describes what it is useful for. 

Learn to Read Other Code  

Learning to read other code is so important because you will need to read it in many different instances. When you are trying to solve a problem in a code that someone else created, you must know how to read it. If you don’t know how to read other code you will not be able to solve the problem. You can also use your ability to read other code to create a program of your own. If you can figure out which part of the code another person used for a certain aspect of their project, you can implement something similar into your own code. If you have already implemented something similar but are having errors with it, you can rely on someone else’s code to help you solve the problem you are having with your own code. 

Additionally, you must be able to read your own code at a later time. If you create a project and have to add things to it later, you will need to know which part of the code needs to be changed. You will only know if you can read the code. You must be familiar enough with it that you know, without a doubt, what each piece of your code means. Luckily, there are resources available to guide you with your learning. There is a blog post written for  LaunchSchool that offers tips and suggestions for those who are learning to read code. When the author learned to read code he could find very little in the way of resources and tips, so he wanted other beginners to have a detailed guide to reference. 

Put Your Skills to Use  

Once you have become confident in your skills as a Software Engineer you will need to build your own project. It can be whatever you want it to be but it must work well. If you plan on landing a job as a Software Engineer, you need to have many completed projects that work as expected. You should create projects that highlight your skills and areas of expertise. If you aren’t ready to create your own project yet but want to start building your experience you can work on other projects instead. When you are working on other projects, you will be responsible for fixing errors in a code that has already been created. You will also be responsible for adding new features to other code. 

Learn About Computer Science Topics  

The next step in your process should be learning more about computer science topics. Learning about databases, cybersecurity, search engine optimization, or any other computer science topics will allow you to become more comfortable navigating a computer. It can also help you come up with new ideas for your own projects. A writer for Forbes created an article about  some of the most popular computer science topics  to learn about. You can reference the article if you want some different ideas for what to research. 

Create a Portfolio and Resume  

In order to be considered for a job as a Software Engineer, you must have a proof of your abilities. You should create a portfolio that includes examples of your work. This could be unique projects that you have created on your own, or it could include work you have done for non-profit companies. You will likely need more than one example of your work. The more you can include the better your chances of being hired are. Your resume is just as important as the portfolio. Without a strong resume you may not even be able to land an interview at all. In your resume you should include all courses you have completed in regards to Software Engineering. Free online courses or college courses should be included. You should also list all any Software Engineering work you have done for others. You will want to include the skills you possess that relate to Software Engineering. 

Find an Internship  

Working as a Software Engineer intern can work in your favor in a couple of ways. First, it will get your foot in the door, so to speak. You will be able to get to know the employees that work in the field and, if they like your work, could offer you a paid job before long. They could also direct you to other organizations that are looking to hire paid Software Engineers. 

Another way working as an intern can help you is by giving you more real-life experience. You would be learning from Software Engineering professionals and you may be given your own projects to work on. There are many possibilities for an intern, but they all will offer you experience that you won’t get anywhere else. Plus, you can add the internship to your resume for when you are looking for a paying job. 

Apply For Jobs  

When you have learned the fundamentals, practiced and developed some expertise, created or worked on projects, built a strong network of other Software Engineers, and created a resume and portfolio, you are ready to apply for paying jobs. Look back on the goals you set for yourself at the beginning of the process. Remind yourself of the job you wanted when you first began this journey and then ask yourself if your goals have changed. If your goals have remained the same, apply for the job you had originally desired. If your goals have changed, think about the job you want now and apply for that one. Take another look at your resume and portfolio, and make any changes that could increase your chances of landing the job you are applying for. The author of  FreeCodeCamp explains the importance of editing and personalizing your resume and portfolio to fit the description of the different jobs you are applying for. You can read all about his experience with searching for a job and how he got hired after making some changes. 

There are reliable websites to use when applying for Software Engineering jobs.  Indeed  is one of these reliable websites. When using Indeed you can read the job descriptions and requirements, and many times you can check the salary for that particular job. You can also use the Indeed search to find jobs in different states if you are willing to relocate.

How to Become a Web Developer

The simplest way to describe the internet is that it is a series of pages. Each page was written by someone. That someone is called a web developer.

Web developers have their fingerprints in all aspects of a website. They work with form, by designing layouts, choosing colors, and the overall look. They also work with function. Web developers oversee the technical aspects such as security features and handling traffic.

Web developers enjoy being on the frontline of the internet. With connectivity showing no signs of slowing down, it is an exciting career prospect. There is plenty of room for development, especially with the new innovations frequently introduced. Web development is also a great career prospect because there are plenty of job opportunities. 

Here, we look at the steps you can take if you are interested in becoming a web developer.

First, what is a web developer?

A mobile application or a website undergoes a different design process. It is not enough to be able to do the layouts or pick out the colors. You need to be able to design its backbone: the thing that makes it work.

A web developer is someone who creates applications, software, or websites. They are the ones who use the language of coding to create these outputs. Although these are usually associated with on the internet, it is not always the case. Web developers also build products that are found in a private network.

Step One: Choose a specialization.

The different applications of web design also have different qualities. For example, think of a simple blog. It does not need much — just the ability to write entries and store information for the pages. On the other hand, think of a website like PayPal. It is much more complex. The security features alone make it a monster of a website. 

The varied nature of the internet is what makes it necessary for web developers to have a specialization. Sure, it is possible to build a website by yourself. In fact, there are instances where web developers run a one-man operation. However, this would mean being knowledgeable in many aspects of web development. It can also be time-consuming. You would also be limited to simple websites. 

The large scope of work in web development leads to specializations. Web developers often focus on certain software programs to save time and effort.

There are many ways that web development is categorized. However, the simplest is by the output the developer does. The common classifications of web developers are front-end, business logic, data access, and code separation.

These classifications are important because they define the roles of the developer when working in a team. Also, they point to the direction of what kind of coding language should be used. Later on, you will see that narrowing down why being able to narrow down the programming language is essential.

Front-end developers are the ones that are involved in the interface of the product. The interface is how you interact with an app or website. They usually use CSS and HTML. They are also proficient in design programs like Java or Flash. 

Front-end developers are not just concerned with how the page looks on a screen. They are also in charge of how people use it, by instructing how buttons and menus behave. Front-end developers essentially ensure that users have an easy time navigating the website or app and that everything works the way it should.

It is in this area that some people get confused between a web developer and a web designer. If someone designs how a website looks like, then he or she must be a designer, right?

This definition is only partially correct. Web designers design websites to make sure they are aesthetically pleasing and user-friendly. But, web developers are the ones that bring these designs to fruition using coding. If the web designer draws the blueprints, then the web designer also makes sure the construction is done. 

The other specialization in web development is called business logic. It can make use of Java or .NET codes. The business logic is a bit like a bridge between the user and the data of the website. Web developers specialize in creating processes that allow information from the users to be processed.

In connection with this, web developers that are concerned with the data of the web product are those that specialize in data technology. The web developer designs in so that when the business logic provides the request of the user, the right data is provided. The usual programs used by these types of web developers are Java or PHP.

As for the database itself, the language used is usually SQL. SQL stands for Structured Query Language. It is the standard way to connect with a database system and is used to update and retrieve data.

Step 2: Get an education.

Web development is unique from professions like medicine or law in that no formal education is required. In fact, there are so many resources that it is possible to learn on your own. However, there are some companies that prefer to hire someone with a background in formal education. According to the US Bureau of US Statistics, web developers often earn an associate’s degree. 

The popularity of web development means that schools have responded to the demand for developers. Top universities like the University of California and Purdue University offer curriculums in web development.

For those who are looking for training, there are also plenty of entities offering certifications like Coursera and edX. There are even free online resources. For example, Microsoft has Microsoft Virtual Academy that has free courses in web development.

Step 3: Master the technical skills

A good education can be the first step to becoming a web developer. But, the foundation of this industry is built on technical skills. It is the technical skills that will allow you to do the work. 

There is a large amount of study involved in web development, because of the different programs that are used. You would also need to have an eye for detail. One mistake in the code can alter the whole application or website. 

When it comes to technical skills, the first thing you need to know is what is coding. Coding is essentially the language used to develop the apps, software, and websites that people use. It is like the DNA that web developers use to come up with their creations.

The code that web developers write tells the computer how to act. But unlike a human or even a pet, computers do not understand commands in the way we ordinarily use language. Computers are more basic; they understand “on” and they understand “off”.

Transistors are switches that turn on and off signals in the computer. These are called binary code and are represented by the numbers 1 and 0. The combinations of these 1s and 0s form the instructions for the computer in such a way that it understands them. For example, a coder can write 11111000010 to mean something. 

The problem arises in the complexity of the binary code. You would have to write a long sequence of 1s and 0s to make an effective command. In fact, it can take billions to do it. It is not very efficient, is it? For one thing, it can be time-consuming. It can also be very tedious. Imagine searching through the different 1s and 0s to find a single mistake. 

Fortunately, web development does involve doing that. Programming languages solve this dilemma.

These programming languages simplify the binary code by providing a set of rules for writing and formatting. It provides the syntax. They are like shortcuts to represent the 1s and 0s.

There are many different languages that a web developer can use. Each language is used for a specific purpose or specialization in web development.

For example, you can use the programming language HTML. You can type “

Hello

”in Notepad, a basic computer program. The computer will not understand what “hello” means; but, it will understand what you are saying if it is translated into binary code.</p>

A programming language will translate what you wrote by processing it into something called an assembly language. The words and letters take the place of the binary patterns. Then, the assembly code is further translated into machine language or a series of binary instructions that the machine can interpret. Since the computer can understand the instructions, it can execute the command as binary code.

Step 4: Know the programming languages.

Everything found on the internet was made using programming languages. It is important to note that web development is a fast-evolving industry. There are new languages created all the time. Thus, programming languages age or become obsolete quickly. If you are serious about becoming a web developer, you must keep yourself updated with industry trends.

One way to keep up with the news is by joining communities like GitHub. It is a forum for web developers where people can get feedback on their work. Stack Overflow is another example. It has discussion boards where people can interact with each other. 

Although there is no shortage of programming languages available, there are some that are consistently used. Here are some of the more commonly used ones:

  • JavaScript

JavaScript has been used for a relatively long time. It has been around since 1995; yet, its use is still widespread until today. It is mainly used for web pages and is often built on web browsers. However, it can also be used on web servers through the Node.js function.

JavaScript makes a page responsive to the user. For example, it can be used to make clickable buttons and pop-up menus.

It works by creating a Document Object Model or DOM. You can make updates to the DOM using your coding skills and the changes will happen in real-time. The browser also has the feature of registering the code on the movements of the user, like a mouse click, so you can customize the user experience.

  • Python

Python is a high-level programming language. High-level programming languages are simply programs that are simpler to use. In contrast, low-level programming languages resemble binary code more closely.

In 1991, Guido van Rossum developed Python to make code easier to read and write. Its simplicity makes it a popular choice among web developers, especially those who are beginners. It is used primarily for software that deals with numbers.

  • SQL

SQL or Structured Query Language is the language of databases. It is often written as a series of queries. Each query performs a specific task, like creating, updating, or deleting data.

In a website, the SQL can be used to create, update, or delete content. For example, WordPress uses SQL as a programming language. The commands people use to make and delete their blog entries are all because of SQL.

  • PHP

PHP is another programming language used to create user-friendly pages on the internet. It works with both SQL and HTML. The SQL has all the content, while the HTML lets you see them.

The PHP is similar with JavaScript in that both create a friendlier browsing experience. But, the PHP is built on a web server, while JavaScript is built on a browser. The PHP’s focus is to bridge the gap between SQL queries and HTML.

  • Ruby

Ruby is a high-level programming language that was developed by Yukihiro Matsumoto in 1995. It is seen as a successor of the PHP. They are similar in that both are built on a web server and produces HTML output. However, Ruby is simpler to write.

  • C

Do not let the one-letter name fool you. C is perhaps the most significant among the modern coding languages. It is not the easiest to master, because it is a low-level programming language. But, it is extremely flexible and can be used in practically all platforms, like Microsoft Windows.

  • C++

A more developed version of C is the C++. It can also run on different platforms and is often used to create computer games.

  • C Sharp

Another offshoot of C is the C Sharp. It was made by Microsoft in 2000 and primarily used in its .NET network. It only runs on Windows. C Sharp is used to develop software for Windows desktop computers.

  • Objective-C

The Objective-C also comes from the C programming language. It was made by Apple in the early 80s. It is a high-level programming language that only works with Apple operating systems.

  • Visual Basic

Another Microsoft-developed programming language, Visual Basic was designed to react to the commands of users, such as clicking the mouse or pressing of the keyboard. It only works on Windows.

  • Java

Java is used across multiple platforms. It was first developed in 1995 by the Oracle Corporation. It is a high-level programming language that can work on almost all operating systems. It is particularly popular in creating applications for Android like Opera and mobile games. 

  • Perl

The Perl was primarily used for text processing. It is a high-level programming language and was once used frequently on the web. However, newer languages like the Ruby have relegated it back to its original purpose, which is text processing.

These programming languages are just the tip of the iceberg. There are many more programming languages available. As someone who is interested in joining the web development profession, you might ask yourself, “how can you possibly learn about all the available languages?”

Fortunately, that is not necessary. As mentioned earlier, certain programming languages work best for specific jobs. If you know what area of web programming you want to engage it, it narrows down the kind of programming language you should know.

In the case of web developers, it is rare to find someone who is an expert at all languages. Much like how they specialize in their branch of web development, they also tend to focus on a certain set of programming languages. 

Step 5: Build your presence   

Knowing what to do is one thing. Getting it done is another. Once you have the technical skills of a web developer, you need to do what a web developer does. You will need to have a solid portfolio to showcase your body of work to potential employers or clients.

The first thing a web developer needs is to have a website. Invest in your own address so it looks professional. A web developer without an online presence is like a photographer without a camera: it would not make sense.

Your website should be well-designed without any errors. It is your first opportunity to showcase your skill. You can also include projects you have made, whether paid or personal.

Beginners can consider taking test projects, such as small projects for friends and family or doing volunteer work. The goal is to practice the technical skills in preparation for more complex jobs.

An often-repeated tip among the web developer communities is to create websites for fictional clients. It can be good practice for your skills and showcase your work to potential clients or employers. However, make sure to clarify that the works are made only as samples.

Step 6: Know the landscape of the industry

According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, the web development industry is expected to increase by 15% from 2016 until 2026. This figure represents a much higher growth rate than other industries.

Web developers also work in a variety of fields such as publishing and entertainment. Most web developers are expected to find opportunities in the mobile industry as demands for apps increase. E-commerce is also an area that shows potential for web developers.

The web development industry is obviously robust. However, it is not perfect. You still need to put in the effort to make sure you land your ideal job – as well as gain financial rewards for your efforts.

First, think about whether freelancing is for you. You can also opt to become an employee of a company.

The career direction you take as a web developer depends on many factors. First, consider what level of job security are you comfortable with?

Regular employment means that you know what to expect each month. You can also expect a paycheck at a certain time. However, this advantage can also be a disadvantage. Your income does not grow depending on how many more clients you can add.

On the other hand, freelancers must make sure that they have clients each month. It is a more unstable situation. Of course, it is also possible for established web developers to have a steady flow of clients. In cases like these, compensation is commensurate with the effort put it. However, there is no guarantee.

Another factor to consider is that freelancing requires marketing and sales capability. You will have to be the one to look for clients or create opportunities for clients to find you.

Think of it as going for a job interview every time you meet a new client. You would have to showcase your best work and demonstrate that you are a good partner for the project.

Not everyone has the sales skills. It is something to consider when deciding between freelancing and employment.

In either case, web developers who are just starting out in their careers should know where to look for jobs. Sites like Glassdoor, LinkedIn, and Indeed have web developer opportunities posted on their job board sections.

Web development is a relatively new career choice compared to other industries. In many ways, its newness is its advantage. It is more receptive to people entering the profession. There is also greater flexibility when it comes to educational attainment. 

If you are thinking of joining the web development industry either as a fresh student or as someone looking for a second career, you should be ready to learn all the technical skills.  It is both an investment and the foundation of a web developer. Once you have the skills, it can be the start of a whole new career path. 

Learn to Code for Free

In recent years, coding has taken a huge popularity in the job market. There are tons of jobs that are in need of coders and they are willing to pay the big bucks to get you on their team. In order to code, you must be able to understand technology and all the lingo associated with it. There are plenty of different resources to help you learn how to code for free in your own spare time apart from afterhoursprogramming.com Here are some of the best websites and resources that you can use to help you learn to code for free. 

1. Codecademy 

Codecademy is one of the very first website that appears when you type “learning to code for free” in Google’s search engine. They are one of the most popular websites for coding online and it’s easy to see why. Their platform for teaching you how to code involves interactive learning. You can read a little bit of the lesson and actually complete the codes that are require in real time, right there in the browser window. You can also see the results of your code immediately, so you will know first-hand if your code was correct. Codecademy offers a lot of different coding lessons including lessons for HTML, JavaScript, Python, Ruby, and The Command Line. 

2. Code 

Code is a non-profit organization that is trying to help expand access to computer science in schools. This is a leading website for helping those in grades K-12 learn how to code. This is a great resource for those who are wanting to go into the computer science pathway and they are looking for a way to start. Since there are so many different jobs in computer science, Code’s philosophy is to help our children get a head start in this field to hopeful fill some of these computer science jobs and help change the way we view computer science. Code also offers a quick Hour of Code tutorials for free, which is helpful for those who are not actually sure if they really want to go into coding or not. They are supported by big name corporations, such as Amazon, Facebook, Google, and Microsoft. They teach many coding courses, including HTML, JavaScript, CSS, and more. 

3. freeCodeCamp 

freeCodeCamp is an online coding school that teaches the skills need for coding through its own curriculum. There are 800 hours total coding hours that have to be completed in order for you to pass the coding class. This website gives you hands-on experience by letting the student work for projects that are needed by non-profit organizations. These learners get to experience the ways that their codes will work in real time. These coding lessons will also look really impressive and help the student’s resume stand out more when they are looking for their first official coding job after they are certified. freeCodeCamp offers certifications in many different types of coding, the most popular being data visualization, DevTools, QA Testing, React, HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. 

4. Udemy 

Udemy is a coding school that offers free programs as well as paid programs. On Udemy’s website, it is possible for anyone to become an instructor. It is really important that you read the reviews of these instructors so that you are sure that you are getting an instructor that is really knowledgeable in the coding subject. They have a wide variety of coding courses available, including those needed for business management, personal development, marketing and photography. Udemy also offers many sales on their courses throughout the year and coupon codes are often available as well to get the best deal on your paid classes. There is also a coding app that is offered through Udemy as well. These website teaches many different coding lessons, including the most popular ones in the coding spectrum today. 

5. SoloLearn 

SoloLearn offers coding courses that can accommodate every type of learner. Those who have different learning styles can get what type of class they need in order to code the way they will in the job force. They offer crowd-learning courses, in which you learn to code in bit-sized lessons along with fun practice sessions that are guaranteed to keep you focused. They also offer classes that learn by doing, meaning you will have practice sessions during the course wherever it is possible. When you master the task at hand, you will then reinforce the task by testing yourself with fun and hands-on practices and interactive quizzes. SoloLearn offers unbound learning, which is when you can go at your own speed on your own time. This is wonderful for those who are already somewhat skilled at coding or are just faster learners than everyone else. And with the learning by playing option, everything is just a game! You will earn points and unlock levels all while learning to code and competing against your classmates from around the world. SoloLearn is available for free on a mobile app or on your laptop and they offer many different types of coding lessons. 

6. Codesters 

Codesters is an online coding platform for students that combines fun and learning all together. The platform offers built-out coding lessons, meaning that you can teach coding during the school day and still be able to integrate coding into your already made lesson plans. In the coding platform, students will create interactive projects in Python, which is a really popular coding platform for younger and beginner coders. Students will use Codesters’ unique drag-to-text toolkit and guidelines in order to create the code that they want. While doing this, they will see interactive animations and sprites. Codesters prides themselves on creating teachable lessons to get teachers to teach coding in the classroom and get computer science into the everyday classroom more often to enhances academic classes and mathematical concepts such as statistics, probability and geometry. 

7. GA Dash 

The General Assembly has created a free online learning coding platform in order to incorporate more availability to coding for the general public today. This learning platform is completely project-based. This means that you are building your project from the moment you put in your first code. There is a walkthrough type lesson as you are coding, which makes this a great option for those learners who are more hands on than others. Learning to code on GA Dash will teach you your code in real time and they are one of the only coding websites that teach you how to build different themes for social media sites, such as Tumblr, from scratch. They offer several different coding lessons and courses. 

8. Coderbyte 

Coderbyte is another great resource for those learners who need to learn a skill hands-on. This learning platform helps your coding skills by teaching you the basics of coding in various programming languages and helps you build up your newly learned coding skills with different challenges that incorporate different types of code. There are over 200 different coding challenges for you to complete. Coderbyte also offers tutorials in several popular types of code, including JavaScript, Ruby, Python, HTML, CSS, and more. The questions that are often asked on the challenges are some potential questions that might be asked of you if you were to interview with companies like Google or Microsoft. 

9. Code Conquest 

Code Conquest is an online coding guide that is completely free and is really awesome for beginners. This website offers step-by-step information, which is a really great feature for those, like myself, who like to write things down step-by-step and do things in order. Code Conquest offers courses that will introduce you to coding, give you the opportunity to take free coding tutorials, and let you also take quizzes to help you test what knowledge that you have learned. Code Conquest offers tutorials and knowledge quizzes in HTML, JavaScript, CSS, PHP, jQuery, Swift, Python, Ruby and more. This website is your one stop shop for everything coding that you can possibly think of! 

10. CodeCombat 

CodeCombat is a platform that helps students learn computer science through coding. The students will write code and watch their code come to life in real-time, all while they think that they are just playing a game. This online platform is designed with teachers in mind, hoping to help them incorporate the use of computer science daily in their classrooms. The students are immediately typing coding from the beginning of the first level. This helps to get the students critically thinking as quickly as possible to get proper structure and syntax happening fast. The coding is taking place in the form of a game in order to help the students stay focused and motivated. CodeCombat rewards the “productive struggle” of different games. This is the struggle that results in a learning experience that is engaging and motivating. 

11. Bento 

Bento is a platform that is described as a “self-taught” area for those who are learning to code as they go. Bento is on a mission to help ensure that everyone that wants to be able to code, can code to the best of their ability. This online resources is chalked full of different web development topics, well over a hundred different ones. They offer different tutorials to learning how to code quickly and easily. They have structured them into a different standardized curriculum, one that is easy to understand and is free to the student. Becoming a code developer has never been so easy than just using the Bento website. 

12. Microsoft Virtual Academy 

You can’t mention computer science without mentioning Microsoft. Microsoft’s Virtual Academy has different learning paths that are all free for anyone to learn to code. These courses are designed to help build the skills needed to code properly by video tutorials, demos, and quizzes. Microsoft also takes the resources a step further by offering you free access to different e-books, downloadable helpful guides and a community forum to get support from if you are frustrated with coding or just need advice on your code. There are several learning paths that are available including, MEAN stack, SQL, Azure, and HTML. Microsoft also makes it really easy to track your coding progress and earn certificates of the courses that you have completed. 

13. Learn Java 

There are several coding resources that are just specific to one type of code. Learn Java is one of these resources. Learn Java offers different learning chapters to get you to code in JavaScript quickly and easily. When you go to the website, there are several chapters that you can choose from, meaning that this would be a perfect starting point for a JavaScript beginner. The class begin with an introduction to JavaScript and then quickly moves on to variables and types, conditionals and other basics associated with JavaScript. Learn Java also offers different types of advanced topics such as Abstract Classes, Collections, and Inheritance. There is a window that appears at the bottom of the screen so you can see how your code works in real-time. 

14. Khan Academy 

Khan Academy has the philosophy that anyone, anywhere can learn the ins and outs of coding easily by providing them with free coding education. Khan Academy has specialized learning resources that are personalized to your learning style. Khan Academy offers practice exercises and videos that are paced so that learners can study on their own time. Khan Academy offers programs in math, science, computer programming, history, economics and much more. This will help you identify which coding areas are your strengths and where there are some learning gaps in your ability to code. Khan Academy is a learning resource for all ages and for everyone in your family. You will learn how to code in JavaScript, HTML, CSS, SQL, and many more advanced versions of these codes. 

15. The Code Player 

The Code Player is an online learning resource that offers different tutorial videos for learning how to create code. This would be an awesome learning tool for those who are more visual learners instead of more hands-on learners. With The Code Player, you will learn codes with HTML5, CSS3, Javascript, Regex, and JQuery. The projects that are associated with The Code Player are smaller than some that are offered on the other learning resources, making it the perfect starting point for beginners. 

16. HTML.com 

HTML offers a free online tutorials that are tailored to learn web designs and coding to your personal learning style. This is a really great learning resource for those who are just learning coding for the first time. The beginner courses are the most popular on the website, with subjects including HTML tables, links, forms, fonts, and images. HTML also offers tutorials for those who are more skilled at HTML than a beginner with intermediate and advanced tutorials as well. This learning resource can truly cater to everyone who wants or needs to learn more about coding. You will also learn about HTML reference tags that are popular for getting a more detailed code on your projects. 

17. W3Schools 

W3Schools is the world’s largest web developer site. They want to continue their overall growth by offering free coding tutorials and giving reference materials for those who are interested to help grow the field of web programming. The online resources offers different tutorials about coding and gives you the option to test your skills with different quizzes and exercises to make sure you are entering in your code correctly. You can complete these exercises and quizzes using the online editor that is offered through their website. W3Schools offer many different choices for coding tutorials, including HTML, CSS, JavaScript, PHP, and many others. This is a really great starting point for those who want to get their foot in the door with coding. 

18. EdX 

EdX is a higher education program that was created and governed by MIT and Harvard. This is a credible online resource for learning how to code online for free. EdX offers over 100 different coding courses that are personalized to your learning style and will help you learn the proper way to code. EdX will teach the different coding languages of HTML, CSS, HTML5, and JavaScript. These coding classes are for many different levels or learning from beginner to advance. 

19. LearnPython.org 

This is a really great tool to learn python in a hands-on way. This coding technique is interactive and you can watch your code come to life in real-time. There is a little window at the bottom of the website where your code is written out as you are going through the lessons that you are working on at the time. There are different tutorials for those who are just learning how to code python and those who are know how to code python already, but are looking for more advanced code to add to their original coding techniques. 

20. Code Avengers 

Code Avengers is a great individual online learning resource for those who are interested in coding. There are instructors that are available to not only teach you the ins and outs of coding, but to also offer support to instructor led and self-directed learning. Code Avengers offers Code Camps that teach students basic coding and creative problem solving skills. These camps are about two to five days long and you will be able to use code after the camp is completed. Or, you could use the Code Avengers full curriculum, which they use as sort of a “boot-camp” to get you ready for a job in the computer science world. 

21. Coursera 

With Coursera, you have plenty of options for coding, with professional and versatile course options. This is one the best online website to learn coding for free, because the site has a large online course library, and the courses are taught by university professors. You also have the option to pursue an actual degree or just a Fast Track certificate. Coursera also has an app that is available in the Apple App store or the Google Play store. This means that you can download the app to your Smartphone and you will be able to get your coursework accomplished from anywhere that you are. This also means that you will be able to do your work on your own time, making it fit into your schedule. You will also receive live instruction from you teachers and work on your projects with your global classmates from all around the world. 

22. Hackr.io 

This is a great list of programming resources that are community-curated. You can search for the language of code that you would like to learn, and you will see a list of online courses, books recommended by many already certified coders. The courses that they recommend may not be free, but there are so many options that you should be able to get a free trial from at least one of these. 

23. Ruby in Twenty Minutes 

This online learning tool is just a small dose of learning Ruby. This program is interactive and helps the coder to stay focused on the learning of the code at hand. This hands-on approach is really awesome for those who need to learn Ruby quickly, but are still in the beginning stages of learning how to code. This will put you at the head of the class with learning Ruby. 

24. Dataquest 

This is a hands-on, free coding course that uses data to teach you coding skills. You will build projects right in your computer browser and see how they are worked out in real-time. This is awesome for someone who is looking at doing coding as a job instead of as just a pastime. 

25. Mozilla Developer Network 

This online resource offers free documentation on several different types of coding language, such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. There are many different tutorials for those who are beginners, but they also have tutorials for those who are at a higher level of learning how to code. This is a really great online resource for anyone who wants to start coding. 

26. Watch and Code 

This resource is dedicated to mastering the tasks of JavaScript. This is to help you become as fluent as possible in the building blocks of JavaScript, so that you will be able to code properly in this coding language. Watch and Code has instructor led study sessions that are offered every week to ask any questions that you may have so that you can make sure you are coding the right way. This is a great resource if you are serious about coding JavaScript more often than any other of the coding languages. 

YouTube Channels 

You can also learn to code by watching tutorial videos from YouTubers! Here are some of the best Coders on YouTube and their channels that you can follow! 

27. LearnCode.academy 

This online learning resource is actually a YouTube channel! All of the videos on this channel are dedicated to teaching others how to code. These videos are informative and really easy to understand. They are made by Will Stern, who is really skilled at teaching others the ins and outs of coding. These videos offer free tutorials of all the major types of code including Sublime Text, Responsive Design, Node.js, Backbone.js, Deployment Strategies, and more! 
Subscribers: 514,565 

28. Clever Programmer 

Here is a really great YouTube channel that discusses all thing computer programming all of the time. The Clever Programmer, Qazi, is a skilled coder and is really great at teaching new coders the basic skills of coding. He promises that you will be able to take your coding skills to the next level with new coding tips and tricks. 
Subscribers: 236,353 

29. Derek Banas 

Derek Banas has been teaching learners to code on YouTube since 2008. He has videos that help you learn to code that are focused and are really easy to understand and follow through. These videos are awesome for those learners who like to have a more thorough lesson of coding that just a little snippet of a lesson. This is a really great starting point for a beginner coder, as Banas’ just gives you somewhat of an insight to coding before you personally choose to jump into a bigger curriculum. 
Subscribers: 856,659 

30. CS Dojo 

The YouTube channel was created by YK, who is an avid lover of computer science and a coder for Google. This channel focuses on computer programming and coding, while also giving views videos on how to get coding jobs and helpful ways to answer interview questions. YK teaches codes for Python, Data Structures, and other programming languages. 
Subscribers: 593,198 

31. Coder’s Guide 

Coder’s Guide is a YouTube channel that is created by Neil Rowe. He has been offer free coding tutorials since 2013, and he offers many different tutorials in different types of coding languages. Rowe’s videos can teach you HTML, CSS, JavaScript, Bootstrap, PHP, and many others. 
Subscribers: 62,901 

32. The Coding Train 

This YouTube Channel offers free coding tutorials that are focused on creative coding. There are new tutorials posted weekly and they cover various ways to code. From basics to the advanced codes, you will learn the coding languages of JavaScript (with p5.js) and Java (with Processing). This will help you to create your own algorithms like physics simulation, computer visions and other programming techniques. 
Subscribers: 555,496 

33. ProgrammingKnowledge 

Programming Knowledge is a YouTube channel that is dedicated to teaching all of the different code languages that are needed to make awesome and creative projects. This channel has been up and running since 2012 and has various tutorials on several different types of coding. On this channel, you will learn how to code for JavaScript, Android, Python, GitHub and Git, Maven, and many others. There are literally tons of videos on this channel and all of them are really ease to follow. There is a video for just about any code that you can think of. 
Subscribers: 721,479 

34. CodeWithChris 

Chris Ching created this YouTube channel to help people with no computer programming experience be able to build their own apps from scratch and help them get their apps to stores for purchase. His videos are easy to follow and offer step-by-step instructions and offer tips and advice for code beginners. You will learn how to build an app at the end of the very first video with Xcode and Swift. 
Subscribers: 137,781 

35. DevTips 

This YouTube channel offers weekly videos of the development of software, web developing and coding. This tutorials are easy to follow and use some of the most popular code languages such as HTML, CSS, responsive design, and other advice towards developments. 
Subscribers: 298,005 

36. Brackeys 

This YouTube channel is usually specifically for game development, however, there are newer videos of showing how to do code. There are videos for C# and other types of code. These videos are a great way to start to make games that can be played on Windows and Mac software. 
Subscribers: 555,020 

37. thenewboston 

This YouTube channel, created by Bucky Roberts, has several videos to help you learn how to code. This channel has been up and running since 2008, posting multiple videos for computer related tutorials. There are over 4000 videos on this channel that talk about code and the process of coding in general. Bucky teaches you how to use various languages of code including Android development, C programming, Java, Python GUI, iOS development, Bootstrap, CSS, Angular, and several others. This is one of the most popular YouTube channels for coding. You are sure to learn the code that you need with these outstanding and easy to follow videos. 
Subscribers: 2,065,591 

There are several different ways for you to learn how to code online, completely for free. This market of jobs are expanding drastically every day, so much so that coding is starting to make its way into our school systems to let our children experience it firsthand. These online resources are great ways to get a jump start yourself on the next biggest job market available in the computer science world. Check out these resources for yourself and get coding today!

Differences between Python 2 vs Python 3

Picking the right programming language can always be a chore for companies and individuals. Individuals sometimes take multiple classes and spend years and thousands of dollars mastering a programming language. They learn all of its complexities and apply all of the possible updates as quickly as possible. A programming language could grow to become the basis of a company or a lucrative hobby. Then, the individual is eventually faced with a crisis when the programming language either stops being supported or issues a significant update. Individuals often try to drag out their usage of the comfortable and the familiar for as long as possible. They ignore possible inefficiencies and even some security flaws. 

This exact scenario is being played out around the world today with computers and companies that use the Python programming language. Python 2 will no longer be supported after 2020 and individuals who use the language still are being urged to transfer over to Python 3. While there are sensible reasons to make the shift, this fact does not mean that companies are willing to change what they have been working with for over a decade in the span of a few weeks or months. 

History of Python



Python was a high-level programming language developed in 1991 and later managed by the Python software foundation. The term “high-level” means that the language had a wide variety of potential uses and could be applied at the vanguard of programming. This language was meant to introduce ease and simplicity into the field of computer programming. 

It made a better use of white space than other languages and simplified the logic of functions and entries that the programming field required. Over the years, this simplistic nature ended up being at the heart of Python’s success. It ended up cultivating an entire programming philosophy that sought to reduce the confusion, stress, and opacity that dominated the first several decades of computer coding and programming languages. 

Since 1991, Python has exploded in popularity and became a critical part of the infrastructure of the internet. Now, Python is being used across a number of different fields. It is essential to artificial intelligence and to large-scale research initiatives. Python is also at the heart of many websites that millions of Americans use on a daily basis. This programming language is particularly helpful for any website that uses or requires a search by dictionary function. News and social media websites need this function and fit more seamlessly with Python than many other forms of programming languages. The famous social news network Reddit is based entirely off of Python code. 

Python 2



Python 2 is still being updated and used extensively. This operating language served as an update to the original Python system. It was introduced in 2000 to glowing reviews due to its many advances and achievements. Python 2 was able to use Unicode symbols in a manner that vastly expanded potential input and output. This new programming language also utilized a cycle-detecting garbage-collector which helped remove old processes and make the program more efficient. Starting with Python 2, the Python development team also started allowing the community to make more changes and updates. 

This decision helped to secure the long-term viability and the future improvements of the language. The language went through multiple updates up to version 2.7. This beneficial system ended up leading to a problem with the adoption of Python 3. Python 3 was introduced in 2008 and the developers of Python originally intended to stop support of the programming language in 2015. However, users reported that they were still using the generally effective Python 2. It will be inherently difficult for Python users to make that significant change. But there are still reasons to update their programming language. 

Strengths of Python 3



Python 3 has a handful of significant benefits over its predecessor. One of these is the PRINT function. On Python 2, this function was listed simply as a term that was located beside the text that an individual wanted printed. All of the other functions had to pair text with parentheses in order to work properly. Python 3 treats the PRINT function the same as all other functions. This quick fix allows an individual to fit the PRINT function in with the many other functions that coding in Python might require. 

Another significant change is integer division and the way that the programming language treats numbers. Previously, Python 2 treated integers as strong numbers and would not allow them to float by adding decimal places. This status led to the language rounding to the lowest answer while performing calculations. The rounding may become a problem if input involves hundreds or thousands of complex calculations. Python 3 treats these numbers as traditional integers that can be easily divided. 

In addition, Unicode support is more complete in Python 3 than it originally was in Python 2. One of the original updates of Python 2 was the ability to program with the help of Unicode symbols. These symbols can help a developer save a significant amount of time when they are coding and programming. But Python 2 made an incomplete change by displaying these symbols in ASCII. ASCII is a less developed simulation of the 

Compatibility



Many aspects of Python 2 and 3 are inherently similar. Certain changes that are used as part of Python 3 can be ported back to Python 2. A prominent example is the change in the PRINT function. This new function can be ported back to Python 2.7 and can make that programming language function more smoothly. Other changes in Python 3 can also be expressed in updated Python 2 languages. Python 3 code can be ran in a Python 2.7 environment in most instances. 

Some small tweaks and changes may need to be made in the field of integer and function usage. But many of the significant developments of Python 3, such as formatted string literals and a new approach to matrix manipulation, had already been included in the most recent forms of Python 2.7. Python 2.7 was basically a bridge to help ease anyone who had not yet transitioned into the use of Python 3. 

Why change?



One of the most important reasons to change programming languages is the potential of discontinuing the product and stopping updates. Python 2 has been continuously updated over the past ten years. Python’s developers wanted to support individuals who were loyal to their old products. The most recent update of the product was the 2.7 edition release. But the updates will not continue indefinitely and support will end in 2020. Support for Python 2 means that the Python Software Foundation continues to offer updates and security packages if a flaw is discovered at some point that makes the programming language vulnerable to hackers. 

Lately, these updates have been issued to help Python 2 remain compatible with any Python 3 updates. The loss of support means that these updates will cease. Companies will immediately become much more vulnerable than they were before. They will have more difficulty finding individuals to perform maintenance on their systems and to update those systems. In general, their programming language will become obsolete. Their status will reflect the current status of operating systems and internet browsers that are no longer supported. Due to the current size and sophistication of updated websites, these browsers and operating systems grind and lurch when they are able to access the internet at all. This fate will be similar to the one that Python 2 users will begin to face soon after the end of support in 2020. 

Another key reason to change over to Python 3 is ease of use. Python 2 was most certainly easy to use. It saved a significant amount of time and had more functions that the initial release of Python. But the improved features of Python 3 mean that they will become standard for the many different types of computers and programming systems that use Python. New applications will automatically be launched in Python 3 and anybody using Python 2 will have to introduce new systems to help navigate themselves. Individuals will have to type decimals to properly perform all sorts of division. They will have to render Unicode symbols in ASCII. Sometimes, they will have to type extra in order to print at the right times and in the right places. All of these steps will take time and energy that could otherwise be spent crafting a program and typing out code. 

Potential complications



Python 3 has been fine-tuned extensively over the past ten years. Initial patches and updates sought to help work out bugs and improve the flow of programming from users of the language. But soon after that, Python developers began to focus extensively on the ability for Python 2 users to utilize Python 3. There are certain aspects of porting from Python 2 to Python 3 that may still be difficult. 

Package libraries, for instance, that existed on Python 2 have not been fully ported over. The porting process began later in the new programming language’s lifespan and it has not been fully completed yet. There are several package libraries that cannot be utilized yet in Python 3. This situation could become a problem if an individual works extensively in older applications or with older machines. 

Individuals also must be wary of the new developments and updates that will soon be issued with Python 3. Those developments will utilize the Unicode systems and integer relations that Python 3 emphasized so effectively. This process will only accelerate in the years to come. Python 3 will eventually pivot away form compatibility with Python 2. Developers will assume that nobody is using the antiquated Python 2 software and may introduce new characters and processes that will simply issue an error message if used with Python 2. Individuals need to be aware of these changes and the potential for significant programming improvements in Python 3 in the months and years to come. 

Conclusion



Python 2 was an admirable programming language that helped to revolutionize the way that developers processed and programmed applications. But it is clear that companies need to start the process of transitioning from Python 2 to Python 3 as quickly as possible. Python 3 is more intuitive and takes up less time than its predecessor. It furthers the ease-of-use and simplicity that made Python into a juggernaut in the programming field. 

Just as importantly, transitioning to Python 3 will help keep a company safe and up-to-date. It will ensure that a company is protected and keeps as close as possible to the many developments that Python’s developers and other users may have introduced. Companies have gotten all that they can out of the ease and simplicity of Python 2. It is certainly time for an upgrade.